revelation" that embracedreligion as well as history and natural law. Robert
Mathisen of Western Baptist College offered a brief comment.
Session 3 on "PEACE, JUSTICE, AND EVANGELICALS IN/ON
HISTORY," was chaired by Douglas M. Dyeof Grand Canyon University.
William R. Sutton of University High School, Universityof Illinois delivered a
paper entitled "'Against Those Who Defraud Laborers of TheirWages':
Evangelical Critiques of Exploitation in19th Century America," which
surveyed the landscape of evangelical opinion about capitalism inthe
Victorian and Gilded Ages. Sutton argued that labor organizersand other
moral critics of exploitative forms of capitalism developed an alternativeview
of Christian stewardship, setapart from those who developed a bourgeois
evangelical defense of property rights. Those divisions among evangelicals
that obtained in this period, particularly overissues like the Homestead
strike, belied opportunities for harmonization between evangelical faithand
social justice, as in the case of the 20th century southernevangelical black
Perry Bush of Bluffton College presenteda paper entitled "The Robust
Life and Uneasy Death of Populist Evangelical Faith," which arguesfor an
essentially anti-capitalist and anti-establishment evangelical faith inthe late
19th century. Following World WarII, evangelical populism shifted from the
left to theright as evangelical religious leaders advocated a suppression of
class andracial divisions to present a united front against communism.
Discussant Susan Myers-Shirk of Middle Tennessee State University notedthe
papers' tendency to lament the conflationof evangelicalism and political
conservatism as asearch for a "usable past," and sought a broadening of the
scope of discussion to include other varieties of Protestant Christianity.
Session 4 "CHRISTIANITYIN THE ANCIENT AND EARLY
MEDIEVAL PERIODS," was chaired by George Giacumakis, CSU-Fullerton.
The first paper, "Slaves of God: TheImpact of the Cult of Roman Emperor
Worship on Early Christianity's Use of Slavery as a Metaphor," was presented
by James S.Jeffers, Biola University. Jeffers discussed the cult of the Roman
Emperor and its role inhow early Christians viewed slavery. This imperial
cult presentedmore of a realistic challenge to Paul and early Christians than
usually thought since it was the most widespread cultin Greece and Asia
Minor where Paul ministered. Paul's depiction of believers asslaves of God is
seen as a deliberate comparison to participation in the imperial cult.
This was followed by "Notions of heresy in 6thCentury Gaul" by John
C. Eby, Loras College. By the sixth century, heresy was largely a pastoral