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Fulop suggested thatthe balance of power in university/church

relations might profit from a consideration of where the money was. He

raised the questionof how the Protestant auxiliary might have worked with

and against the Catholics in Weimar. He also suggested that acomparative

look at post-WorldWar II German discussion of the same issues might be

illuminating. On the school books, heasked what was known about the

relative usage of text books and supplementarytexts. He also suggested that

disestablishment issues (legal, social, and cultural) might be examined.

Session 10 on "CHRISTIANITY &AMERICAN SOCIAL THOUGHT"

was chaired by DouglasF. Anderson of Northwestern College. Ronald A. Wells

of Calvin College delivered a paper entitled"Josiah Royce and the History of

California: On Constructing a Christian Perspectivefor California's

Sesquicentennial," examining the degree towhich the Harvard professor of

philosophy anticipatedthe themes of the New Western History, chiefly

associated with the work of Patricia Limerick. To Wells,Royce considered the

history of Californiato be American history in microcosm, which should

include all aspects of social, political,cultural, and economic life together with

the successes and failures of its central figures. Royce mightwell be

considered a revisionist, since he condemned the treatmentof the Californios

by white Americans and found annexationists like John C.Fremont to be

lacking in moral judgement,but his history rather improves on the

revisionist account. For Wells, Royce's version of "Christian" history is more

complete because it not onlyrecognizes the "sins" of the past, but also

comprehends its "redemptive" aspects as well.

Thomas A. Askewof Gordon College presented his research on the

influential international mission conference in New York in1900 in "The

Ecumenical Missionary Conference, New York,1900: A Centennial

Reflection," which describedthe conference itself and rooted it firmly into its

historical context. New mission initiatives throughoutthe Victorian period

were well representedat the conference, including special themes of women

and youthin foreign missions. The conference enjoyed a large quantity of

attendees, addressed awide geographic range of mission work, and

benefited from the high profile of many of itsinvited dignitaries. In all, the

conference reflected the growing power of theUnited States in global affairs,

and the confidence ofits participants that Anglo-American Christianity had

been and continued to be the chief engine of progress amongthe community

of nations.

Zachary Calo of the University of Pennsylvania delivereda paper

entitled "CharityWithout Sacramentality: Reverend John A. Ryan, Catholic

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